As London grew during the 20th century, transport underwent dramatic developments. In the City's flourishing wholesale markets, porters and horse-drawn carts were replaced with motorised vehicles.
Traffic congestion around them increased as the markets expanded. During the second half of the 20th century, most wholesale markets were forced to move to sites outside central London.
Billingsgate market, One of London's most ancient, was originally on what is now Lower Thames Street. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was a thriving wholesale fish market.
Little over 80 years later, Billingsgate relocated to Popular in east London. Today it is the United Kingdom's largest inland fish market.
Livestock has been bought and sold on the Smithfield site for over 800 years. The current wholesale meat market was established by the 1860 Metropolitan Meat and Poultry Market Act.
City architect Sir Horace Jones designed Smithfield's West and East Market buildings. They were completed in 1868, and additions were made during the 1880s. A poultry market opened in 1875 was destroyed by fire in 1958. It was replaced by the current building in 1962.
In 1992, the Corporation of London spent 80 million restoring the three main market buildings and modernising their facilities. They are now Grade II listed buildings.
Smithfield is one of the few great London markets to remain on its original site in the City. The capital's largest meat market, it covers more than ten acres.
Smithfield is thought to be the most modern commercial meat market in Europe, and deals with approximately 120,000 tons of produce each year.
During the 14th century, Leadenhall market developed as a poultry and dairy market in the heart of the City of London. It was rebuilt after the 1666 Great Fire of London.
In 1881, Horace Jones replaced the earlier structures with the present buildings. Leadenhall is now a thriving retail centre with a wide range of goods on sale.
New Spitalfields market
In May 1991, Old Spitalfields produce market relocated from London's East End to Leyton. New Spitalfields market covers over 30 acres and has easy access to the motorway network and the ports.
With 115 trading units in its central Market Hall, New Spitalfields has more wholesale traders under its roof than any other United Kingdom horticultural market. Its wholesalers, dealing in fresh produce and flowers, offer the widest selection of exotic fruits and vegetables in Europe.
New Covent Garden
New Covent Garden opened at its 56-acre, purpose-built Nine Elms site in 1974. The fresh produce and flower market had relocated from its central London site between the cities of Westminster and London.
Before its relocation, Covent Garden had an annual turnover of around 75 million. In the year ending March 2005, the 250 companies in New Covent Garden had a combined annual turnover of 497 million.
What are these?
Social Bookmarking allows users to save and categorise a personal collection of bookmarks and share them with others. This is different to using your own browser bookmarks which are available using the menus within your web browser. Use the links below to share this article on the social bookmarking site of your choice. Read more about social bookmarking at Wikipedia - Social Bookmarking.